End Notes

  1. Verse by Tatsuo Kawai published in the Kawai family remembrance book Manazuru, Kawai, Tomiko, ed., 1968 (in Japanese.) Translated by Kyal Hill, Tokyo. Back

  2. On Japan and Indochina, see Toland, John, The Rising Sun, The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire 1936-1945, Penguin, London, pp 60, 82-83; Togo, Shigenori, The Cause of Japan, Simon and Schuster, New York, p 40. Back

  3. Kawai on Germany in Kawai, Tatsuo, The Goal of Japanese Expansion, Hokuseido Press, Tokyo, 1938, pp 11, 13, 14 & 114. Also see Kawai verse, Roosevelt - the spoiled child in Wurth, Bob, Saving Australia, Curtin's secret peace with Japan, Lothian, South Melbourne, 2006, p 160. Review of Kawai's book, Sydney Morning Herald, Books of the Week, March 18, 1939. Rebelliousness, Bungei Shinju, February 1941; letter from Keith Officer to External Affairs, NAA A981/4 JAP 120, part 1; Tsuneo Hattori on Kawai and staff in Manazuru, cit. op., pp 28-35. Back

  4. Latham on Kawai, letter to Lord Gowrie, Governor General, 26 February 1941, NLA MS2852, 5/13; Latham to Stewart, 26 February 1941, NAA A4231, S-22/1/41. Back

  5. Kawai on iron ore, The Goal of Japanese Expansion, cit. op., pp 51-53. Yampi Sound iron ore, Lyons to consul-general of Japan, Sydney, May 17, 1938, National Archives of Australia A19272/341, 89; memo Shedden to William Hodgson, December 6, 1937, Documents on Australian Foreign Policy, vol. 1 & NAA A981, Australia 90B, i. Jehol, also known as Rehe, China. Curtin on Yampi Sound in 1928, see records of the Westralian Worker, 6 July 1928; JCPML 00302/591; JCPML 00554/4; also Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates , vol. 156, 19 May 1938, pp. 1260-1262. Kawai as official spokesman on use of armed force, The Japan Weekly Chronicle, September 22, 1938; Kawai response to Australian iron ore ban, SMH, report from Tokyo, May 24, 1938. Back

  6. Curtin, CPD, Vol. 147, pp 1268-9. Back

  7. Curtin on revival of 'spirit of goodwill' between Japan and Australia, May 9, 1939, CPD, Vol. 163, p 203. Back

  8. Prime Minister Menzies to S.M. Bruce, December 7, 1939, Documents on Australian Foreign Policy, Vol. II, Canberra, Neale, R.G. (ed.), Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1976, p 451. Back

  9. Prime Minister Menzies to Sir Geoffrey Whiskard, UK High Commissioner, Canberra, November 22, 1940, NLA MS 4936, box 252. Back

  10. Fadden on Curtin, Fadden, Arthur, They called me Artie, The Memoirs of Sir Arthur Fadden, Jacaranda Press, Brisbane, 1969, pp, 51 & 55. Curtin on fate of neutral countries in Europe in Advisory War Council meeting of February 13, 1941, NAA A5954, 812/1. Back

  11. Fadden, They called me Artie, cit. op., p 51. Sir Talbot Hobbs' warning to the Press sub-branch of the R.S.L. in Perth reported in the SMH, July 2, 1936. Back

  12. Menace from Japan and Curtin-Fadden press statement, see the Advisory War Council minutes, February 13 & 14, 1941, NAA A5954, 812/1. Menzies on British Foreign Office 'fatalistic attitude' towards Australia and Japan quoted in Menzies cable by Fadden in minutes of the Advisory War Council, NAA A5954, 208/2, March 6, 1941 pp 1-2. Joint statement and criticism of Fadden and Curtin by party colleagues, Ross, Lloyd, John Curtin a biography, Melbourne University Press, 1996, pp 203-204 & Day, David, John Curtin a life, Harper Collins, Sydney, 1999, pp 400-401. Fadden on Roosevelt in Fadden, They called me Artie, cit. op., pp 52- 54. Back

  13. Curtin at the Advisory War Council, February 14, 1941, NAA A5954, 812/1. Back

  14. Kawai interviewed in Brisbane by Richard Hughes in Daily Telegraph, Sydney, March 12, 1941. Back

  15. Kawai interviewed in Sydney March, Sydney, March 13, Sydney Morning Herald & New York Times, March 14, 1941. Back

  16. Kawai in Canberra, photo, Kawai collection JCPML, SMH March 14, 1941; the Argus March 14, 1941. Kawai on Curtin, essay (in Japanese), Kawai, Tatsuo, John Curtin: The politician, publication for the Japan Australia Society, Tokyo, June 1962, translated 2003 by Kyal Hill (held at the JCPML.) Hattori in Manazuru, op. cit., pp 28-35. Back

  17. Hattori and Kawai in Manazuru, op. cit, pp 28-35. Back

  18. Attaches and spying, Minter to Hull, US political report for the month of April 1941, Akiyama/Hashida letter, NAA C443, J263; letter Stewart to Fadden, NAA A981/4, JAP 121, March 28, 1941. Stewart's reluctance about Kawai, letter Ralph Harry to Shaw, NLA MS 5904, October 26, 1941; Harry, Ralph, essay, The North Was Always Near, Centre for the Study of Australia Asia Relations, Griffith University, Brisbane, 1994. Back

  19. Kawai in The Argus and SMH, April 29, 1941, Times, London, April 30, 1941; Frederick Stewart on Kawai, The Argus April 30, 1941; letter Stewart to Latham, Evatt Collection, Flinders University, External Affairs - Japan, April 30, 1941. Back

  20. Curtin/Kawai meeting, The Argus, April 29, 1941. Back

  21. Kawai in the paper John Curtin: The politician, op.cit. Back

  22. Curtin, Evatt, Advisory War Council minutes May 1, 1941, NAA A5954, 208/2; Fadden, They called me Artie, cit. op., pp 57-58. Curtin and Kawai motives, Wurth, Saving Australia, op. cit., p 82, 84. Back

  23. Cable Kawai to Matsuoka, May 7, 1941, Miscellaneous British domestic affairs - Territories; Commonwealth of Australia, A., Japan Centre for Asian Historical Records (JACAR), B20010008133 reel A-0976.  Translated by Kyal Hill. Back

  24. Menzies return in Fadden, The called me Artie, cit. op., pp 60-61 and in Wurth, Saving Australia, cit. op., pp 84-85. Masumi Kawai on Menzies-Curtin relationship, Masumi Kawai to the author, Tokyo, October 23-24, 2002; Toshio Takeuchi interview with Bob Wurth, Manazuru, Japan, 23 October, 2002, Wurth collection JCPML. Back

  25. Taijiro Ichikawa interview with Bob Wurth, Tsujido, Japan, October 25, 2002, Wurth collection, JCPML. Back

  26. Advisory War Council minute 356 of the meeting of June 5, 1941. Back

  27. Kawai entertaining at Carn Brea, Owen Dixon diary, May 9 & June 6, 1941, Ayres, Philip, Owen Dixon, The Miegunyah Press, Melbourne, 2003, pp 83-84, 124-125, 131; social column in the Herald, Melbourne, June 11, 1941. On trade with Japan, Kawai letter of June 21, 1941 to Menzies, and Menzies letter of July 6, 11, 1941 to Kawai, NAA A1608, G59, 1/3, ii.  Back

  28. Kawai in Cottesloe, Elsie Curtin in 'The Curtin Story: Part 3', Woman Magazine, March 26, 1951, JCPML 00577/3; Kawai arrival story in Perth in The West Australian, July 14, 1941. Back

  29. Kawai statements in Adelaide, Time magazine of July 28, 1941; Also see West Australian and other Australian newspapers of July 17, 1941. Menzies on Indochina and sanctions, minutes of the Advisory War Council, July 16, 1941, NAA A5954, 812/2. Confusion in Government and Opposition, see minutes of the A.W.C., July 29, 1941, NAA A5954, 208/2. Back

  30. Letter Kawai to Latham, August 9, 1941, NLA MS1009, 1, 5509. Statements including references to Kawai at the Advisory War Council meeting of August 14, 1941, see minutes, NAA A5954, 813/1. Back

  31. Advisory War Council meeting, ibid; resolution in Weller, Patrick, Caucus Minutes 1901-1949, Vol. 3 1932-1949, Minutes of the Federal Parliamentary Labour Party held August 21, 1941, pp 283-284. Back

  32. Menzies downfall, A. W. Martin, 'Menzies, Sir Robert Gordon (Bob) (1894 - 1978)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 15, Melbourne University Press, 2000, pp 354-361. Fadden downfall, Margaret Bridson Cribb, 'Fadden, Sir Arthur William (1894 - 1973)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 14, Melbourne University Press, 1996, pp 123-126. Back

  33. Cables Kawai/Curtin NAA A461, R4/1/12 PM. Back

  34. General Mackay's vision, Chapman, Ivan, Iven G. Mackay, Citizen & Soldier, Melway, Melbourne, 1975, p 234. Back

  35. Japan's decisions for war, Togo, The Cause of Japan, cit. op., pp 138-1146; Toland, The Rising Sun, pp 168. Back

  36. Tojo address to the Diet, reported in the SMH, datelined November 17, 1941, on November 19, 1941. Back

  37. Evatt in Parliament on Kawai, CPD, vol. 169, Evatt ministerial statement, 26-27 Nov, 1941, pp 972-978; Evatt's sympathy for Japan in Wurth, Saving Australia, pp 96-97, 108, 120, 155-156, 169, 212. Task force sails for Pearl Harbor, Ike, Nobutaka, Japan's Decision for War, Records of the 1941 Policy Conferences, Stanford University Press, California, 1967, pp 262-263. Back

  38. Curtin quoted in Gavin Long diary, Australian War Memorial 67, 1/3, pp 26-27. Back

  39. Elsie Curtin, 'The Curtin Story', writing in Woman magazine, March 26, 1951, p 3, JCPML00577/3. Back

  40. Murdoch background, Fred Alexander, 'Murdoch, Sir Walter Logie Forbes (1874 - 1970)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 10, Melbourne University Press, 1986, pp 630-632. Murdoch on Kawai/Curtin in essay, The Age, Melbourne, October 18, 1952, NAA A5954/69, 554/2. Back

  41. Kawai visit to the Lodge, NAA CA12, CP2258, M1416, Mrs Curtin's personal file, 1941-1943; Diplomatic missions not informed of Pearl Harbor or war details, see discussion at the 74th Liaison Conference, November 29, 1941, involving Foreign Minister Shigenori Togo in Ike, Japan's Decision for War, pp 260-262. Back

  42. Robert and Pattie Menzies at Carn Brea, Ayres, Phillip, Owen Dixon, pp 124 & 131, from Owen Dixon diary, November 15, 1941. Back

  43. Taijiro Ichikawa interview with Bob Wurth at Tsujido, Japan, October 25, 2002. Back

  44. Kawai statement to foreign press in Melbourne on August 16, 1942, before his departure on the City of Canterbury, New York Times, September 3, 1942; Times, London, September 1, 1942. Back

  45. Report on Kawai by Captain Philip Proctor, Melbourne, to Commonwealth Security Service, Canberra, August 17, 1942, NAA B741, VIII 89/S. Back

  46. Kawai peace efforts with Yoshida, Taijiro Ichikawa interview with Bob Wurth, Tsujido, Japan, October 25, 2002; Kawai contacts in China, Moriwaki in Manazuru, cit. op., pp 8-11, Kawai as peacemaker in The Japanese Biographical Encyclopaedia, Rengo Press, Tokyo, 1961. Back

  47. Kawai's brief post war political career, Taijiro Ichikawa interviewed by the author, Tsujido, October 25, 2002; Yoshida statement in Nippon Times, September 21, 1945; Kawai's information role, Nippon Times, September 18, 26, 28, 1945; vice minister appointment, Nippon Times, October 10. Back

  48. Kawai letter to Menzies, August 16, 1950, NLA MS4936, 1/16/141; Menzies press comment, Nippon Times, August 15, 1950. Kawai's article in the Japan News in SMH April 28, 1952. Back

  49. Kawai at Darwin, SMH and The Age, February 23, 1959; The Weekend Mail, March 7, 1959. Back

  50. Kawai returning to Cottesloe, recollections of Kawai's son, Masumi, interviewed by Bob Wurth, Tokyo, October 24, 2002; visit details The West Australian and SMH, March 9, 1959. Back

  51. On WA's iron ore, Masumi Kawai interviewed by Bob Wurth, Tokyo, 16 January 2005. Kawai on his deathbed, Taijiro Ichikawa and Yoshio Kodama in the family remembrance book Manazuru, op. sit. Pp 15-24; Kawai's links with Australia, letter Masumi Kawai to Bob Wurth, 21 January 2003, Wurth collection JCPML01207/3. Back

  52. Michael McKernan writing in a review of Wurth's Saving Australia in the Canberra Times, June 10, 2006. Back