Shaping the Nation header
Between 1899 and 1902, the Curtins lived at two addresses in Brunswick: 1 Munro Street and 89 Wilson St. Back
Throughout this paper, the term 'labour movement' (using British spelling) has been used to describe the broader movement comprising ALP, unions, Trades and Labour Councils and, in places, Left wing groups such as Socialists. The term 'Labor' (using American spelling) is used where the Australian Labor Party is referred to. The Party adopted American spelling from the beginning. Back

This was the Legislative Powers referendum, first offered on 15 March 1911, which proposed granting the Federal Government the power to control
a) trade and commerce;
b) corporations of all kinds except those formed for religious, charitable, scientific or artistic purposes;
c) labour and employment including wages and conditions of labour and the settlement of industrial disputes; and
d) combinations and monopolies regarding production, manufacture and supply of goods and services.

A second referendum question requested powers to make laws for the Commonwealth to carry on, control or acquire a declared monopoly. The Referendum was not passed, Western Australia being the only state to record a 'Yes' majority. In 1913, the referendum proposals were similar, but they excluded interstate trade and commerce on state railways, and included the following: 'to make laws regarding labour, employment and unemployment, including terms and conditions of labour, the rights and obligations of employers and employees, strikes and lockouts, the maintenance of industrial peace and settlement of industrial disputes' and 'to make laws regarding conciliation and arbitration for the prevention and settlement of industrial disputes regarding employment in the railway service of the state'. This referendum and one in 1915 also failed. Back

Chairman of a Special Committee on Child Endowment Report presented at a Special Conference of Unions to consider Child Endowment, Trades Hall, Perth, 27 July 1927, especially pp 5, 10. (A copy of the report is in Jean Beadle Papers, Battye Library Accession no. 3114A, item 19). Back
'LSD' stands for 'pounds, shillings and pence'. Back
The Needhams came to live with the Curtins in 1919, and Abraham Needham undertook some of Curtin's editorial tasks while Curtin was campaigning for the seat of Perth and later during his illness (Day, p. 264). Back
After the 1923 election, the National Party could not retain government without the support of the Country Party,led by Earle Page. Page made it a condition of the coalition that the National Party would appoint a new leader in place of W. M. Hughes, whom Page loathed. Stanley Melbourne Bruce was elected Leader. Back
CPD vols. 181-183 show that Curtin spoke on a wide range of topics such as civil aviation, disputes in the coal mining industry, missing troops in Ambon, manpower, immigration policy, post-war reconstruction and repatriation. Back

Cain listed nine features of modern Australian society as follows:

1. a continuing shift in public policy away from State solutions, to market solutions;
2. greater emphasis on people asserting their own selfish individualistic rights as opposed to collective rights and public interest;
3. privatisation of public assets;
4. nation-building and wealth creation seen as the job of the private sector, with government of diminishing importance;
5. government seen merely as facilitator acting according to commercial principles;
6. citizens become consumers and customers in the international market-place and no longer civic minded workers. Social cohesion and social democracy cast aside;
7. the threat of unemployment continuing at 8-10% unless we accept 'labour deregulation' as a solution. Corollary of this is the American low wage option, and its new class - the working poor;
8. industrial relations decentralised, more flexible system with individual contracts and growing emphasis on casual work;
9. government seen as a large corporation that is answerable to the shareholders - the people - at each election, and at other times critics should remain silent.

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