1. Richard E. Neustadt, Presidential Power and the Modern Presidents: The Politics of Leadership from Roosevelt to Reagan (New York: Free Press, 1990), p.136. Back

  2. David Day, John Curtin: A Life (Pymble, NSW, 2000), 50-52, 183-84, 265-66; Geoffrey C. Ward, A First Class Temperament: The Emergence of Franklin Roosevelt (New York, 1989), chapter 13. Back

  3. Robert Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins: An Intimate History (New York, 1948). Back

  4. See, for instance, David Black, ed., In His Own Words: John Curtin’s Speeches and Writings (Perth, 1995),104, 219-20, 226-27; and 'Australia's Place in the Peace,' Sydney Morning Herald, 15 December 1943. Back

  5. Day, Curtin, 345-46; Michael S. Sherry, The Rise of American Air Power: The Creation of Armageddon (New Haven, 1987), pp.77-79. Back

  6. Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr, Coming of the New Deal (Boston, 1959), 527-8, 583-4; John Lamberton Harper, American Visions of Europe: Franklin D. Roosevelt, George F. Kennan and Dean G. Acheson (Cambridge, 1996), 49-60. Back

  7. Day, Curtin, 417-18, 506. Back

  8. Clem Lloyd and Richard Hall, ed., Backroom Briefings: John Curtin’s War (Canberra, 1997), 4. Back

  9. Graham J. White, FDR and the Press (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1979),10-15. Back

  10. David M. Horner, High Command: Australia and Allied Strategy, 1939-1945 (Sydney, 1982),181-3. Back

  11. Lloyd and Hall, eds., Backroom Briefings, 65, 68, 74.  Back

  12. David M. Horner, Inside the War Cabinet: Directing Australia’s War Effort (Sydney, 1996), 77-80, 216. Back

  13. Black, ed., In His Own Words, 193-96. Back

  14. David Black, ‘The General and the Prime Minister: Douglas MacArthur and John Curtin, http://john.curtin.edu.au/macarthur/print.html. Back

  15. Steven Casey, ‘Franklin D. Roosevelt’, in Steven Casey and Jonathan Wright, eds., Mental Maps in the World War Era (Basingstoke, 2008), 219-22. Back

  16. Minutes, Pacific War Council Meetings, 10 April and 16 May 1942, Map Room Files, box 168, FDRL. Back

  17. In Henry L. Stimson, Diary, 6 March 1942, Yale University Library, New Haven, CT, USA; Roger J. Bell, Unequal Allies: Australian-American Relations and the Pacific War (Melbourne, 1977), 69-82. On Operation Torch, see Steven Casey, Cautious Crusade: Franklin D. Roosevelt, American Public Opinion, and the War against Nazi Germany, 1941-45 (New York, 2001), 82-93. Back

  18. Lloyd and Hall, ed., Background Briefings, 51. Back

  19. Lloyd and Hall, ed., Background Briefings, 113, 122, 124, 166-67. On Flynn, see James MacGregor Burns, Roosevelt: The Soldier of Freedom (New York, 1970), 331. Back

  20. Minutes, Pacific War Council Meetings, 12 January 1944, Map Room Files, FDRL FDR claimed that nations who had borne the brunt of fighting ought to be able to exercise continued control of bases 'whose loss would jeopardize future security.' Back

  21. On Evatt’s lack of success, see David Day, The Politics of War (Pymble, NSW, 2000), 312; Horner, High Command, 256, 259-62. For a more positive view, which argues that 'Evatt’s very assertiveness and persistence achieved results', see Bell, Unequal Allies, 26; for the claim that Evatt successfully demonstrated to the home front that the government was doing it all it could to influence the allied leaders, see Carl Bridge, 'Impossible Missions: H.V. Evatt in Washington and London in 1942 and 1943,' in David Day, ed., Brave New World: Dr. H.V. Evatt and Australian Foreign Policy, 1941-1949 (St. Lucia, QD, 1996), 30-46. As Horner points out, in terms of influencing strategy Australia only really held a veto power over operations concerning its own troops. See High Command, 140, 150, 262-63. Back

  22. For the agreement, see Trevor R. Reese, The Australian-New Zealand Agreement 1944, and the United States (University of London Institute of Commonwealth Studies, 1966), 6-7. Back

  23. Horner, High Command, 187, 198-200; Day, Politics of War, 346; Stimson Diary, 23 March 1942. Back

  24. Hull to Leahy, 5 February 1944, JCS CCS 092.2, National Archives, College Park, MD, USA [hereafter NARA]; William Roger Louis, Imperialism at Bay, 1941-1945: The United States and the Decolonization of the British Empire (Oxford, 1977), 306.  Back

  25. The numerous invitations can be found in A5954, 646/4. Back

  26. FDR to Curtin, 3 January 1944. Elliott Roosevelt, ed., FDR: His Personal Letters, 1928-45, 2: 1477-78. Back

  27. Shedden diary, undated, A5954, 16/2, National Archives of Australia, Canberra [hereafter NAA]. Back

  28. Curtin's views on top-level diplomacy can be found in Lloyd and Hall, ed., Backroom Briefings, 81, 88-89, 122, 166. Back

  29. Cross to Dominion Office, 22 February 1943, DO35/1461, National Archives, Kew, UK [hereafter NA/UK]. Day, Curtin, 485, 516; Day, The Politics of War, 129-30. Back

  30. Curtin's hesitancy is clear from Shedden's diary account, 26 December 1943, A5954, 15/1, NAA. Back

  31. Shedden, Notes of Discussion with Commander-in-Chief, Southwest Pacific Area, 17 March 1944, A5954, 3/8, NAA. According to Shedden's handwritten comments in the margin, MacArthur said that 'Pres. R is dominated by an obsession to be re-elected for a fourth term.' Back

  32. Office of High Commissioner, 'Australian Political Affairs,' 5 May 1944, DO 35/1118.  Back

  33. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1944 [hereafter FRUS], 3: 172, 176-78, 186-87. Back

  34. Bell, Unequal Allies, 109-10, 113-14, 130-31. Back

  35. On Hull and the UN, see Townsend Hoopes and Douglas Brinkley, FDR and the Creation of the UN (New Haven, 1997), 124-25. Hull's discussions with a crucial cross-section of congressional opinion were held on the day after he met Curtin. Back

  36. High Commissioner to Dominions Office, 19 January 1944, PREM 4/42/2, NA/UK. Peter G. Edwards, Prime Ministers and Diplomats: The Making of Australia's Foreign Policy, 1901-1949 (Melbourne, 1983), 156-62. Curtin refused Evatt's repeated requests to include someone from External Affairs in his delegation, on the grounds that the meetings in Washington and London would be concerned principally with 'war and defence.' As Evatt correctly noted, this was a ruse to bypass him; post-war issues would dominate the discussions in both capitals. See Evatt to Curtin, 24 March 1944, A5954, 655/4, NAA. Back

  37. On Hull's ignorance of the discussion at Tehran, see Henry Morgenthau, Jr., Diary, 18 August 1944, vol.763, 202, Morgenthau Papers, Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, Hyde Park, NY, USA [hereafter FDRL]. On Roosevelt's relationship with the State Department, see Irwin F. Gellman, Secret Affairs: Franklin Roosevelt, Cordell Hull and Sumner Welles (Baltimore, 1995), pp.15-16, p.20, p.88, p.164; Martin Weil, A Pretty Good Club: The Founding Fathers of the U.S. Foreign Service (New York, 1978), pp.82-88. Back

  38. For FDR's thoughts, see Forrest Davis, 'Roosevelt's World Blueprint,' Saturday Evening Post, April 10, 1943, 110. For his caution on the home front, see Robert Divine, Second Chance: The Triumph of Internationalism during the Second World War (New York, 1967); Hoopes and Brinkley, FDR and the Creation of the UN. Back

  39. FRUS, 1942, 3: 573-74. Back

  40. Meeting of Prime Ministers, London, May 1944, Review by Curtin, undated, Series 2/11, box 8, 3DRL/6643, Blamey Papers, Australian War Memorial, Canberra [hereafter AWM]. Back

  41. For Curtin's views on 'three security' safeguards, each complementing the other, see Black, ed., In His Own Words, 251. Back

  42. See, for instance, 'Australia's Place in the Peace,' Sydney Morning Herald, 15 December 1943. Back

  43. Meeting of Prime Ministers, London, May 1944, Review by Curtin, undated, Series 2/11, box 8, 3DRL/6643, Blamey Papers, AWM. Back

  44. Bell, Unequal Allies, 152. Back

  45. Ibid., 146-47; Cordell Hull to William D. Leahy, 5 February 1944, JCS CCS 092.2, NARA; Louis, Imperialism at Bay, 306; David Day, ‘Evatt and the Search for a Sub-Empire in the Southwest Pacific,’ in Day, ed., Brave New World, 53-56. Back

  46. Thomas M. Campbell and George C. Herring, ed., The Diaries of Edward R. Stettinius, 1900-1949 (New York, 1975), 39; Warren F. Kimball, The Juggler: Franklin D. Roosevelt as Wartime Statesman (Princeton, 1991), 127. Back

  47. Christopher Thorne, Allies of a Kind: The United States, Britain and the War against Japan (Oxford, 1979), 651, 264-65. See also Warren F. Kimball, ed., Churchill and Roosevelt: The Complete Correspondence (London, 1984), 1: 428; Sir John Dill to Chiefs of Staff, 12 September 1942, PREM, 3/163/4, NA/UK. Back

  48. Minutes, Pacific War Council Meetings, 17 February 1943 and 12 January 1944, Map Room Files, FDRL; FRUS, 1943, 3: 35, 37; FRUS: Conference at Tehran, 197, 258, 509; Sir Frederick Eggleston to H.V. Evatt, 21 November 1944, A5954, 293/6, NAA. Back

  49. Kimball, ed., Complete Correspondence, 2: 269. Back

  50. Anthony Eden, The Reckoning (London, 1965), 438. Back

  51. Hall and Lloyd, ed., Backroom Briefings, 160. Back

  52. FRUS: Teheran, 487; FRUS: Yalta, 798; Kimball, The Juggler, 83-105. Back

  53. For Curtin's views, see Backroom Briefings, 160, 167; Ross Gollan, 'ALP's Empire Spirit,' Sydney Morning Herald, 20 December 1943. For Roosevelt's views, see Casey, 'Roosevelt,' in Mental Maps.  Both Curtin and Roosevelt talked in strikingly similar fashion about using their country's own experience as a model for the rest of the world to copy. Thus Roosevelt saw his 'good neighbour' in Latin America as a successful prototype of consensual interstate relations that could be extended to other regions; Curtin saw the British Empire as the best existing way of achieving democratic international cooperation, which others could emulate. Back

  54. 'Mr. Curtin Arrives in USA,' Sydney Morning Herald, 21 April 1944.  Back

  55. Ray Maley, 'Brief Stay in USA,' Sydney Morning Herald, 25 April 1944. Back

  56. 'Formal Dinner for Curtin,' Sanford, CA, Journal, 27 April 1944; Eleanor Roosevelt, 'Children’s Obligations to Pets,' Des Moines Register, 26 April 1944. For an account of Curtin’s other social events, see Betty Milliken, 'Prime Minister and Wife Feted at Legation Party,' Washington Evening Star, 25 April 1944. Back

  57. 'Australia and the U.S.,' Sydney Morning Herald, 26 April 1944; 'Curtin Puts Aside Question of Bases,' New York Times, 25 April 1944. British Embassy, Washington, Weekly Political Summary, 1 May 1944, NA/UK, pointed out that Curtin had made 'a very favourable impression' in the United States. Back

  58. Brown, Memo on Curtin-FDR meeting, 25 April 1944, Pacific War Council Folder, Map Room Files, FDRL. See also Campbell to Cadogan, 8 May 1944, DO35/1994, NA/UK, which contains a second-hand record of the meeting. In briefing the Advisory War Council on his return, Curtin also suggested that he and Roosevelt had discussed Anglo-American relations. 'The only difference between' FDR and Churchill, Curtin stated, 'was in regard to policy, vis a vis Russia. President Roosevelt considered that the bona fides of Russia should be accepted otherwise there would be no stability in Europe.' Curtin, Summary of State to Advisory War Council, 29 June 1944, A5954, 662/6, NAA. Back

  59. 'News Stir in USA,' Sydney Morning Herald, 27 April 1944; 'Misplaced Emphasis,' White Plains, NY, Reporter-Dispatch, 27 April 1944.  Back

  60. Robert H. Ferrell, The Dying President: Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1944-1945 (Columbia, MO, 1198), 68-73. Back

  61. Prime Minister's Appointments, 23-28 April 1944, A5954, 645/1, NAA. Curtin cancelled appointments with Navy Secretary Frank Knox, War Secretary Henry Stimson, Army Chief of Staff George Marshall and British Ambassador Lord Halifax. Back

  62. Shedden diary, undated, A5954, 16/2, NAA; 'Curtin Cancels Dates,' Albuquerque Tribune, April 27, 1944. Day, The Politics of War, 585; Day Curtin, 538. Back

  63. Some senior officials in Canberra recognized the value of personal meetings. When a clash emerged with MacArthur in late 1943, Shedden 'hoped to minimize any misunderstanding by the fullest possible personal contacts.' Cited in Horner, High Command, 281. Back