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Australia officially became a nation on the 1st of January 1901. The day was marked across Australia with both official and popular celebrations. Sydney was the centre of attention with official celebrations taking place in Centennial Park. Thousands attended the street parades where the official procession passed under many arches especially built for the purpose. Arches have a long history as symbols of centralised power - from the arches built to commemorate the exploits of Roman emperors to those of Napoleon. In Australia, the temporary arches built for the Celebration of Federation represented the diversity of Australia's people, products and cities. They symbolised people's pride in their new nation. Given this symbolism, what do you think of the Bulletin's use of the arch in their satirical cartoon?

Livingston Hopkins, "An Impression of the Melbourne Pageant - The Unemployed Arch", Bulletin, 11 May 1901, p. 17. Courtesy of the University of Western Australia Library.

"Melbourne Arch - George and William Streets", The Argus, 2 January 1901, p. 5. Courtesy of the Newspaper Collection, State Library of Victoria.



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