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Endnotes

1. A family tree titled 'Ancestors of Abraham Needham and Annie Hosking', lists four children: William (1884-1932); Alice (1886-7); Leslie (1886-1950) and Elsie (1890–1975), suggesting that Leslie may have had a twin sister who died in infancy. See http://lackfamily.net/genealogy/names/wholefamily/f815.html. Back

2. JCPML 00964/199 The Argus (Cape Town), 30 June 1975, 'Girl from Woodstock became PM's wife'; North Western Advocate and the Emu Bay Times, dated (incorrectly) 13 August 1906, p. 3. See also Wilfrid W. Harrison, South African History Online – towards a people's history, http://www.sahistory.org.za/archive/early-beginnings: 'The vicinity of the Van Riebeeck Statue at that time was the rostrum for all creeds and sects, who followed each other all through the day of Sunday, reminiscent of the Hyde Park gatherings'. Back

3. JCPML 00398/2, The Socialist, 'Voice of Discontent', 23 June 1911; JCPML01080/1 Defence edition of the Cape Socialist, 'Capitalism breeds Poverty, Socialism is the only hope for its abolition. All else is illusion', August 1908. Back

4. North Western Advocate and the Emu Bay Times, op. cit. Back

5. JCPML00964/70; The Telegraph, 18 August 1942. From Curtin family scrapbook of press clippings JCPML00298/2 'Mrs Curtin First Knew War In South Africa'. Back

6. JCPML00964/4, Daily News, 3 October 1935, from Curtin family scrapbook of press clippings JCPML00298/2.'Mrs Curtin was reared in Political Atmosphere'; JCPML00964/70; The Telegraph, 18 August 1942. From Curtin family scrapbook of press clippings JCPML00298/2 'Mrs Curtin First Knew War In South Africa'; David Day, John Curtin. A life. Harper Collins Publishers, 1999, p. 148. Back

7. JCPML00 398/74: Friday, July 27th 1945, "People In The International News" by Irene A Greenwood, 'Mrs John Curtin - A personal sketch', ABC Radio programme. Back

8. JCPML00964/70; The Telegraph, 18 August 1942. From Curtin family scrapbook of press clippings JCPML00298/2 'Mrs Curtin First Knew War In South Africa'. Back

9. JCPML00 398/74: Friday, July 27th 1945, "People In The International News" by Irene A Greenwood, 'Mrs John Curtin - A personal sketch', ABC Radio programme. Back

10. See Jonathan Hyslop, 'The world voyage of James Keir Hardie: Indian Nationalism, Zulu Insurgency and the British labour diaspora 1907–1908', Journal of Global History (2006) 1, pp. 343-362. Back

11. The Mercury (Hobart), 24 May 1933, p. 6, 'Obituary: Mr. W.M. Needham'. Back

12. JCPML 00705/1/121, Notes from Elsie McLeod, dated 29 April (no year), p. 2. Back

13. A. Needham, 'Natives and Slum Life', Izwi Labantu, 12 May 1908. Back

14. Day, John Curtin. pp. 145-7; The Mercury (Hobart), 27 April 1912, p. 9; The Advertiser (Adelaide), 1 May 1902, p. 7. Tasmanian state Lower House seats were (and are) decided by proportional representation. Electors in Denison were voting for six members, but even so, Needham fell well short, securing only about half the votes of the lowest placed of the six members. Back

15. Advocate (Burnie, Tas) 2 May 1919, p.3; also Mercury, 17 February 1919, p. 7, 'Labour Notes'; Examiner (Launceston, Tas), 22 November 1918, p. 3, 'About People'. Back

16. This date must be incorrect if the meeting was (as appears likely) part of the election campaign, which culminated in Polling Day on 30 April 1912. Back

17. Cited in Day, John Curtin, p. 149. Back

18. Irene Greenwood, 'People in the International News: Mrs John Curtin – a personal sketch', proposed script of an ABC radio broadcast, Friday 27 July 1945, JCPML00 398/74. Back

19. Day, pp.149-50, 163. Back

20. 'John Curtin', The Australian Women's Weekly, 28 September 1940, p. 8. Back

21. JCPML 0001/12, Extracts from Elsie Needham's autograph album. Note quoted in extract, as 'God should try the former'. But Day has written it, 'You should try the former' (p. 150, which makes more sense). Back

22. David Black, Friendship is a Sheltering Tree. John Curtin's letters 1907 to 1945, JCPML and API Network, 2001, pp. 67 ff. Back

23. Day reference here. Back

24. Lloyd Ross, John Curtin, A biography, Melbourne University Press, 1977; 1996 edition, p. 45. Back

25. Ross, John Curtin, p. 45. Back

26. David Black, 'Biography of Elsie Curtin', http://john.curtin.edu.au/resources/biography/ecurtin.html. Back

27. JCPML00705/1/121, Elsie McLeod's notes, p. 3; Black, 'Biography of Elsie Curtin'. Back

28. Elsie McLeod's notes, p.3. Back

29. Elsie McLeod's nots, p. 4; Ross, John Curtin, p.70. Back

30. JCPML 00855, John Curtin Junior, interview with Heather Campbell, part 1, 29 March 2004. Back

31. Elsie Curtin Junior, Letter to 'Auntie Kitty', Sunday Times, 21 November 1926, p.42. Back

32. 'Personal', The West Australian, 1 January 1929, p. 6; 'Near and Far', The Sydney Morning Herald, 11 May 1929. Examples of organ recitals: 'Amusements', The Sydney Morning Herald, 22 October 1931, p. 6; The Brisbane Courier, 24 July 1933, p. 17. 'Obituary: Mr W.M. Needham', The Mercury, 24 May 1933, p. 6. Back

33. Cited in Day, p. 266. Back

34. Day, p. 341. Back

35. Cited in Day, p. 303. Back

36. Argus, 30 October 1941, Curtin Family Scrap Book JCPML00297/1, item 64; Black 'Biography of Elsie Curtin'. Back

37. Black, 'Elsie Curtin Biography'. Back

38. Bobbie Oliver, Jean Beadle. A life of Labor Activism, UWA Press, 2007, p.59. Apart from sharing Labor interests, Beadle was born in Clunes, only a short distance from Curtin's birthplace, Cresswick. Back

39. Day, John Curtin, p. 293. Back

40. JCPML00964/4: Daily News, 3 October 1935, From Curtin family scrapbook of press clippings JCPML00298/2. 'Mrs Curtin was reared in Political Atmosphere'. Back

41. 'What Women are doing', The Australian Women's Weekly, 19 October 1935, p. 23; JCPML00964/5: Melbourne Herald, 9 April 1936 From Curtin family scrapbook of press clippings JCPML00298/2. 'Likes Home Life'. Back

42. JCPML00964/136: Quebec Chronicle-Tele. Que. 31 May 1944, From Curtin family scrapbook of press clippings JCPML00297/6: 'Curtin's Wife Silent Partner'. Back

43. 'Women Should Value Rights, Says New Labor Leader's Wife. Special Interview with Mrs J.L. Curtin', The Mail, 5 October 1934, p. 22. Back

44. See M. Choules, 'Women in Western Australian Parliamentary Politics, 1921 to 1968' BA Honours Thesis, Curtin University, 1988, pp. 25ff. Back

45. JCPML00964/5, Melbourne Herald, 9 April 1936 From Curtin family scrapbook of press clippings JCPML00298/2: 'Likes Home Life'; Black, 'Elsie Curtin Biography'. Back

46. JCPML00964/63, Argus, 22 April 1942, From Curtin family scrapbook of press clippings JCPML00297/2: 'Mrs Curtin Tells of Happy Married Life'. Mrs Needham died on 5 September 1944, at the age of 86. The Mercury (Hobart), 6 September 1944, p. 7. Back

47. West Australian 6 October 1941 (Curtin Family Scrap Book JCPML00297/1, item 19). Back

48. 'Woman's Realm: The Coronation Ball', The West Australian, 13 May, 1937, p. 1. Back

49. 'For Women', The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 7. Back

50. 'Infant Health Appeal', The West Australian, 27 April, 1939, p. 19. Back

51. 'Birthday Celebration', The West Australian, 5 October 1940, p. 16. Back

52. The Western Mail, 9 October 1941, p. 25. Back

53. Cairns Post, 7 October 1941, p. 8. Back

54. Daily Telegraph, 7 October 1941 (Curtin Family Scrapbook JCPML 00297/1, item 26). Back

55. Sydney Sun, 24 October, 1941; Melbourne Herald 25 October 1941, West Australian, 24 October 1941, (Curtin Family Scrap Book JCPML00297/1, items 60, 61, 62). Back

56. Melbourne Herald, 28 October 1941, (Curtin Family Scrap Book JCPML00297/1, item 63). Back

57. Curtin Family Scrap Book JCPML00297/1, item 64 (clippings from Argus, Daily Telegraph, Sydney Morning Herald, all 30 October 1941). Back

58. Cited in Black, 'Elsie Curtin Biography'. Back

59. Daily Telegraph, 25 December 1941, (Curtin Family Scrap Book JCPML00297/2 part 1, item 32). Back

60. Sydney Morning Herald, 30 December 1941, Curtin Family Scrap Book JCPML00297/2 part 1, item 42). Back

61. Sun Pictorial 22 January 1942, Curtin Family Scrap Book JCPML00297/2 part 1, item 84). Back

62. Courer Mail (Brisbane) 23 January 1942, Curtin Family Scrap Book JCPML00297/2 part 1, item 86). Back

63. Sydney Morning Herald, 26 January 1942, Curtin Family Scrap Book JCPML00297/2 part 1, item 88. Back

64. West Australian, 26 January 1942, Curtin Family Scrap Book JCPML00297/2 part 1, item 89. Back

65. JCPML00964/62, Unidentified newspaper, 21 April 1942. From Curtin family scrapbook of press clippings JCPML00298/2: 'Curtin Silver Wedding: no Celebration'. Back

66. Sydney Morning Herald, 29 May 1942, in Curtin Family Scrapbook, JCPMl 002972/2 part 2, item 257. Back

67. Age, 12 August 1942, Curtin Family Scrapbook, JCPMl 002972/2 part 2, item 311. Back

68. Courier Mail, 18 August 1942, Curtin Family Scrapbook, JCPMl 002972/2 part 2, item 331. Regarding women's attitudes to war work, see, for example, Gail Reekie, 'Shunted back to the kitchen?' in Jenny Gregory, ed., On the Homefront, UWA Press, 1995. Back

69. Melbourne Herald, The Sun (Sydney), both 19 August 1942, Curtin Family Scrapbook, JCPMl 002972/2 part 2, items 334 and 335. Debate about his remarks continued for some days in the press. Back

70. Sydney Morning Herald, 21 August 1942, Curtin Family Scrapbook, JCPMl 002972/2 part 2, item 341. Back

71. Sunday Telegraph, 23 August 1942, Curtin Family Scrapbook, JCPMl 002972/2 part 2, item 343. Back

72. Argus, 18 September, 1942, Curtin Family Scrapbook, JCPMl 002972/2 part 2, item 382. Back

73. Sunday Telegraph, 25 October 1942; SMH 26 October, 1942, 'Before the Whirlwind', Curtin Family Scrapbook, JCPMl 002972/3, items 1 & 2. The visit appears to have lasted about two weeks. Curtin was back in Adelaide on 10 November. Back

74. SMH, 26 April 1943, 'Mr Curtin at Home'; Sunday Telegraph, 2 May 1943, 'The Prime Minister Back Home', Curtin Family Scrapbook, JCPMl 002972/3, items, 170, 174; West Australian 16 August 1943, Curtin Family Scrapbook, JCPMl 002972/3, part 2, item 298. Back

75. Sun Pictorial, 13 September 1943, Curtin Family Scrapbook, JCPMl 002972/3, part 2, item 323. Back

76. Daily Telegraph, 21 October 1943, Curtin Family Scrapbook, JCPML 002972/3, part 2, iem 360. The Lancaster bomber is on permanent display at the Australian War Memorial, Canberra. Back

77. Sydney Sun, 9 January 1944, Curtin Family Scrapbook, JCMPL 00297/4, part 1. Back

78. Daily Telegraph, 21 April 1944, Official Curtin Scrapbook, JCMPL 00297/4, part 1. Back

79. Melbourne Herald, 24 April 1944, Official Curtin Scrapbook, JCMPL 00297/4, part 1. Back

80. 'Mrs Curtin to Wait in America', unidentified, undated newspaper clipping in Curtin Family Scrap Book, JCPML01257/1, p. 66. Back

81. Sydney Morning Herald, 28 April, 1944, Official Curtin Scrapbook, JCMPL 00297/4, part 1, item 80. Back

82. Melbourne Herald, 2 May 1944, Official Curtin Scrapbook, JCMPL 00297/4, part 1, item 87. Back

83. Argus, 21 July 1944, Official Curtin Scrapbook, JCMPL 00297/4, part 1, item 142; Washington Post, 12 May 1944, JCMPL –297/6 item 27. Back

84. Ottawa Evening Journal, 30 May 1944, JCMPL 00297/6, item 44; JCPML00964/135, Montreal Gazette, Quebec, 31 May 1944, from Curtin family scrapbook of press clippings JCPML00297/6, 'Mrs John Curtin arrives in Ottawa'. Back

85. Day, John Curtin, p. 547. Back

86. Argus, 21 July 1944, Official Curtin Scrapbook, JCMPL 00297/4, part 1, item 142. Back

87. Sydney Morning Herald, 19 July 1944. Back

88. Westralian Worker, 13 October, and 10, 17 and 24 November 1944, all p. 6. Back

89. Sydney Morning Herald, 11 in Official Curtin Scrapbook, JCPML 00297/4, part 2, item 198. Back

90. Melbourne Herald, 11 December & 29 December 1944; SMH 8 & 9 January 1945, Official Curtin Scrapbook, JCPML 00297/4, part 2, items 199, 200. Back

91. SMH 3 January 1945, Official Curtin Scrapbook, JCPML 00297/4, part 2, items 210-13. Back

92. Argus, 1 February 1945, Official Curtin Scrapbook, JCPML 00297/4, part 2, item 216. Back

93. Greenwood,'People In The International News'; Daily Mirror, 13 February 1945, Official Curtin Scrapbook, JCPML 00297/4, part 2, item 225. Back

94. SMH 1 March, 1945, Official Curtin Scrapbook, JCPML 00297/4, part 2, item 227. Back

95. JCPML00964/204, The Herald, 29 April 1985, From Curtin family scrapbook of press clippings. Back

96. Unidentified, undated newspaper clipping, 'Funeral in Perth. 100,000 attend impressive burial', Curtin Family Scrap Book, JCPML01257/1, p. 94. Back

97. West Australian and SMH, 9 July 1945, Official Curtin Scrapbook, JCPML 00297/4, part 2, item 306. Back

98. SMH, 9 July 1945, Official Curtin Scrapbook, JCPML 00297/4, part 2, item 305. Back

99. Greenwood, 'People In The International News'. Back

100. Westralian Worker, 17 & 24 August, 14 September, 6 October, 9 November, 14 & 21 December, 1945. Back

101. Westralian Worker, 22 November 1946; 28 March 1947. Back

102. JCPML00964/186: New Zealand Free Lance, 30 November 1949, From Curtin family scrapbook of press clippings JCPML00298/2 'Trip Planned On Spur Of The Moment'. Back

103. Curtin, Elsie, The Australian Women's Register, http://www.womenaustralia.info/biogs/IMP0043b.htm, accessed 18 July 2012. Back

104. Unidentified newspaper clipping, 'Mrs Curtin refuses a microphone', dated '1949' JCPML 00298/2. Scrap Book 2A. Back

105. Unidentified newspaper clipping, 'Obituary: The Late Leslie Needham', dated 5 April 1952, JCPML 00386. Back

106. Sunday Times, 8 March 1959, 'Reunion after 17 Years', JCPML 00386. Back

107. JCPLM 01095/1 24 Jarrad Street Cottesloe Western Australia [14 November 1954]. Back

108. West Australian, 20 June 1975, p. 12. Back

109. West Australian, 1 August 1945, p. 4. Back

110. Commander of the British Empire patent awarded to Elsie Curtin by Governor Kendrew, 1 January 1970. JCPML00373/2; Daily News, 30 April 1970, JCPML00298/3, item 82. Back

111. Daily News, annotated '1970 (Oct), JCPML 00386. Back

112. The Herald, 9 March 1974, 'People' p. 6. Back